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掃除がラクな床材(フローリング、カーペット、クッションフロア、タイル・石材、畳、他)/第三章 -2.2 

 

3-2.2 掃除がラクな床材(フローリング、カーペット、クッションフロア、タイル・石材、畳、他)

住まいの中でも一番汚れやすい場所が床面である。そして、床に使用される建材の種類によって汚れの付着する状態が異なるため、掃除作業に大きな影響を与えることになる。
住まいで使用される代表的な各床材と汚れの状態を拡大して見ると、フローリングは上にのっているという感じで掃除はラクであるが、カーペットは絡みつき、畳は入り込むといった状態になりフローリングと比べて汚れを除去するのが困難となる。もちろん、各建材の素材の違いや商品によっても掃除のラクなものは多く存在する。室内で一番汚れが付着する部分は床である。液体や固体など日常生活に伴う様々な汚れの対策として、数多くある床材の中から、表面形状や商品性能を考慮して適材適所で選択していくことで、床の掃除をラクにする。

 

   

 

代表的な床材の掃除のポイントを、汚れなどを例に交えて紹介すると次のようになる。

   
これらの、数多くある床材を掃除がラクな順番で種類別に分けてみた。下記に示すのは、各建材の一般的な特徴により分けたものであり、各商品の機能は各メーカーでそれぞれ異なる。

 
(1) クッションフロア(CF)・Pタイル(P=プラスチック)
CFは、合成樹脂系の素材で出来たシート状の床材で耐水性に優れておりつなぎ目も少なく、キッチンや洗面脱衣場やトイレなど水回りに使用されることが多い。とくに、凹凸が無いまたは掃除がラクな凹凸のCFは、床材の中でも1番クリーニングのしやすい素材と言える。また、Pタイルはプラスチック系の素材で作られており、CFに比べて硬く質感に違いがある。CFもPタイルも掃除がラクな床材ではあるが、木や大理石などに比べると安っぽく感じる(質感)といった問題点がある。しかし、商品によっては模様がフローリングや大理石と間違うほどの精巧な物もある。

 
ハウスクリーニング現場エピソードと資料画像1.CF床材:洗面脱衣所

  
 
上の画像は洗面脱衣所の洗濯機置き場である。引っ越し後に洗濯機をどかしてみると、液体汚れやほこりなど複数の汚れが混ざり合い、乾燥して固着してしまった状態。CF素材は耐水性や耐洗剤性があるため、上の汚れはほぼ除去できる。しかし、長期間汚れが放置されると素材の劣化に伴うしみ汚れが出来ることがあり、この場合汚れが付着しているわけではなく変色してしまう状態となり、汚れに強いCF素材とはいえ除去することが難しくなる。
つまり、建材に付着している汚れは除去できるが、経年による劣化や変色した汚れは除去できないと考えても良いということである。そのためにも日常的な掃除が重要であるといえる。

 
(2) フローリング
近年の住宅で1番人気のある床材と思われるフローリングは、木のぬくもりがあり、むく材になると湿度調節の作用もあるとされている。複合フローリングでは、防音タイプや抗菌塗装を施したものなど様々な機能を持ち合わせているものもがある。
フローリングはカーペットや畳に比べて凹凸が少なく掃除は比較的ラクである。しかし基本的には水に弱いため、表面を樹脂コーティングすることで、若干の耐水性を持つ事が出来る。その他、フローリングの目地(凹部)に入った汚れは取りづらい事もあるので、目地の無いフローリングを使うほうが掃除はラクである。
★フローリングの中でも掃除がラクなものとして、WPC*または単板のフローリングで目地のないタイプにコーティングをしたもの(手入れが容易で安価)がお勧めである。また、フローリングはカーペットと比べて、ハウスダストやダニなどの発生率が低減されると言われており、掃除もラクであるため吸入性アレルギーの予防対策ともなる。

ハウスクリーニング現場エピソードと資料画像2.フローリング床材:居室や廊下

   

 経年使用の中で、人がよく歩く場所とそうでない場所とでは床表面の保護剤(床維持剤など)の消耗に差が出る。また、保護剤自体も経年の中で汚れていくので、定期的なメンテナンスが必要とされる。
(上)写真左下の明るく見える部分は、経年歩行により床維持剤(ワックス)が消耗してしまい、右側の暗く見える部分はワックスがまだある状態。これも居住者にとっては床の汚れとされる。

 
(3) タイル・石
水まわりの内装材として一般的なタイルは、耐候性、防火性、防水性に優れた仕上げ材である。また、酸やアルカリなど薬品にも比較的強く、耐摩耗性もあり、掃除もラクな素材といえる。しかしタイルの目地は素材が違い、汚れが素材に入り込むと除去が大変である。最近では、キッチンやバスルームや玄関だけでなく、リビングなどでもタイル床が使われているのを見かけることもある。石材の床では天然石よりも人工大理石の方が耐水性や耐洗剤性などに優れていることが多い。また、石材表面が磨き仕上げなど凹凸の無い物は掃除がラクである。

ハウスクリーニング現場エピソードと資料画像3.タイル床材:玄関やバルコニーなど

  
 
(上)玄関の磁器タイルの上に簡易タイルを載せている。長期間放置された簡易タイル下の汚れはひどく、経年により磁器タイルにしみ込んだ汚れ除去が困難となる。

 
(4) 畳(タタミ)
日本に古くから伝わる床材で和室には欠かせない畳。天然素材100%の畳は湿気をコントロールしたり、有害な物質を吸ったりと呼吸をしているので「天然の空気清浄機」などとも呼ばれる。しかし現代では人工畳が主流であり、とくに気密化住宅での使用は表面のい草などにダニやカビが発生しやすく、汚れも畳同士の継ぎ目や素材に入り込むため、掃除は比較的大変な床材である。また、素材に吸水性があるため、液体汚れなどがしみ込むと除去に困難を伴う。畳にも多くの種類や商品があり、少しでも掃除について対策されている商品を選ぶか、その他で掃除がラクになる対策をすることが、居住後の掃除をラクにすることとなる。
*ハウスクリーニングなどの現場では、梅雨時期に賃貸マンションの借り手が見つからず、数カ月窓を締め切った状態で放置していたら畳表面にカビが大発生し、それに伴いダニも大量発生したため駆除や防カビを含むクリーニングの依頼を受けた事実もある。これらは単に建材だけの問題ではなく、室内の設計や構造や管理方法など様々な要因が関係していると思われる。

ハウスクリーニング現場エピソードと資料画像4.たたみ床材:和室など

   

 和室には欠かせない床材となる畳は、近くで見ると凹凸が多くある。

 
(5) カーペット
基本的にカーペットは素材表面の凹凸が激しく吸水性があるため、CFやフローリングに比べて掃除が大変といえる。しかし、カーペット自体には優れた特徴や居住者からの要望も多くあるため、使用する機会は多いと思われる。その場合、様々なメーカーにより販売されているカーペットの商品機能として防汚性能があるなど、少しでも掃除のラクな商品を使用する他、タイルカーペットなどは部分的な取替えが出来るのでメンテナンス性は高い。さらに、床全体をカーペットにするよりは、ラグマットなどを部分的に使用するほうが掃除はラクである(ラグマットが汚れても、浴室などで洗うことが出来、日影干しも可能となるからである)。
また、カーペットの中でもウールやシルクなど天然素材のものは価格も高く、掃除作業で傷めてしまうこともあるデリケートな素材であるため、他のカーペットよりも掃除は大変で、クリーニングの料金も高くなるので注意が必要である。しかし、高級感があり保温性が高く調湿効果もあるなど、優れた床材であるのは間違いない。

ハウスクリーニング現場エピソードと資料画像5.カーペット

  
 
(上)敷き込みのカーペットの下にはクッションとなる下地があり、液体汚れなどは表面をきれいにしても下地にたまり、さらにその下の合板にまで影響を及ぼすこともある。ペットのオシッコなどはいつまでも臭いが残り、最悪の結果を招くことにもなる。

 

次回は、第三章 -2.3 掃除がラクな壁面・天井材(窓サッシ、壁紙、珪藻土、木、タイル、扉、他)を紹介する。

Chapter 3. “Ueki’s Laws” to make cleaning easy

 
Ueki’s Laws” to make cleaning easy that I am going to introduce here for the first time is devised by Teruo Ueki, a professional cleaner and the author of this paper. By applying these laws, house cleaning will be easier. Moreover, the principle also works as a guidepost to make cleaning of different objects easy.
“Ueki’s laws” are applicable in a wide range of fields. This is because everything that is made by people and used constantly needs cleaning/ maintenance, including not only buildings but also furniture and electrical appliances. Products that incorporate cleaning/ maintenance into their design qualify as eco-products that are hygiene and usable for an extended period of time. This time, I will introduce the laws with a house as a case.

3.1 Some houses are easier to clean than others.
House cleaning consists of not only architectural materials used inside and outside the house for different parts such as floor, wall, window, and ceiling, but also lighting and air-conditioning equipment, and furniture. Things we need to clean are diverse because of the concern for human health and maintenance of overall building.
I have been in the business of cleaning for more than 15 years and cleaned different buildings from individual residences to office buildings, and from new buildings to old buildings. From such experience, I noticed that some houses are easier to clean than others. “Easy-to-clean houses” have various common factors such easy-to-clean materials (architectural materials) and places (work environment). It was predictable that building a house by incorporating such factors would ease the future labor of cleaning. With the basic knowledge of cleaning in addition to my experience in a long career, I devised the laws to make cleaning easy.

 
 
3.1-1 Devising the principle of making the cleaning easy
No matter how efficient you do the cleaning by applying the basic knowledge of cleaning, cleaning is, in the end, a hard work. If you take into consideration the future cleaning work at the design stage when you build or remodel your house, however, house cleaning will be easier. Based on such premise, I devised the laws of lesser and easier cleaning from my experience of cleaning in different situations and the basic knowledge of cleaning.

● equation → law
From the equation of cleaning, set up the prevention measure to make house cleaning easy. The first to do in the equation of cleaning is analysis of present condition of contamination. If no obvious flaws are found, it means cleaning is already easy or needless.

 
   

 
Knowledge of dirt
Cleaning is removing dirt from the house after it is inhabited. Dirt attaches mainly to the surface of finishing materials. If you think about the cause of contamination, you will realize the importance of creating the environment that is less likely to get dirty. Ultimately you do not have to clean unless it gets dirty. This is, however, nearly impossible at this point. Hence, our focus would be on creating the environment that is less likely to get dirty.
★ Steps for analyzing dirt
Source ②type ③condition ④chronological change

 
Knowledge of architectural materials
What measures do we have for the dirt already attached? As mentioned above, dirt attaches mainly to the surface of finishing materials. It can be said that by using dirt-resistant easy-to-clean material for the architectural material where contamination is likely to occur, we can make cleaning easy. In sum, use easy-to-clean materials.

★ Where? Steps for analyzing architectural materials
①the type of architectural materials and their location → ② water resistance and detergent resistance →  ③surface configuration and hardness, and water absorbability and hygroscopicity.
*Things that are less likely to get dirty are easy-to-clean.
*Things for which removal force is applicable are easy-to-clean
*Things for which cleaning techniques are applicable are easy-to-clean

I will focus on the surface configuration. A Flat and solid surface tends to keep off dirt and is easy to clean when it gets dirty. A Rough and lacunal surface attracts dirt and is hard to clean.
This principle is also valid if you take it to the larger scale and apply to the whole indoor space. The Existence, number, and form of asperity greatly influence the way it gets dirty and the way we clean. I also noticed that not all asperity attracts dirt and is hard to clean.
Considering the above argument, to eliminate the asperity or to carefully select the location and the type of asperity is an important element in creating of the environment that is less likely to get dirty and also in choosing of the easy-to-clean material.

*A Close examination of architectural materials, particularly with a microscope reveals the diversity of superficial configurations. Since “roughness” is surely not a sufficient indicator, we need to take into account the “frequency of asperity” and the “form of asperity.” For instance, even with the same frequency of asperity, the one with sharper or more complicated projection and depression gets dirtier and is harder to clean. My belief is that this fact is applicable not only to the surface of the material but also the overall design of the house.
 

Knowledge of cleaning technique
Even multiple preventive measures will not entirely prevent contamination that comes with age. By designing the suitable working environment for cleaning from the start, you can make cleaning easier if you think about the cleaning technique. To put it short, to secure the optimal working environment for cleaning is an important element to make cleaning easy.
 
 

 3.2 “Ueki’s Laws” for making cleaning easy

Ueki’s Laws
① Create the environment that is less likely to get dirty
② Eliminate the asperity or to carefully select the location and the type of asperity
③ Use easy-to-clean materials
④ Secure the optimal working environment for cleaning
Each law generates greater effect by combining together in a way they do not contradict each other.

 

   

  
Though the contents of these laws seem like a common sense, they are not necessarily practiced. Ueki’s Laws are basically to make cleaning easy by taking these four points into account while you plan building a new house or remodeling. These laws enables us to think up with measures to tackle the problem of cleaning by seeing it from four points of view and adapting as many measures as possible. Even when one of the measures becomes dysfunctional by an accident, you can still make up with other measures. Flexibility like this will, in the long run, make cleaning/ maintenance easy.
 

 
3.2-1 Create the environment that is less likely to get dirty
By creating the environment that is less likely to get dirty, we can make cleaning easy. Ultimately you do not have to clean unless it gets dirty. This is, however, nearly impossible at this point. Therefore, the most important thing to make cleaning easy would be creating the environment that is less likely to get dirty.
To create the environment that is less likely to get dirty, we must first think about dirt. We need to specify the dirt that we target and come up with prevention measures to create the environment that is less likely to get contaminated by such dirt, based on the analysis of factors such as source and disposition of contamination.
 
Steps to create the environment that is less likely to get dirty
Specify dirt → analyze factors such as source and disposition of contamination  →  device preventive measures

   

let’s think about the measures to reduce the amount of dirt or to prevent or protect from contamination of material (finishing material, etc.) that we clean. If this is an indoor situation, we can reduce the amount of dirt by blocking dirt from getting in from outside. Even if dirt does get inside or dirt is produced inside, we can prevent to some extent dirt from attaching to architectural materials by taking measures to clean dirt immediately. If dirt is biological, it is important to stop it from breaking out or developing. As seen above, knowledge of the source and disposition of dirt and combination of different measures based on such knowledge will lead to the environment that is less likely to get dirty. It is also important in creating such environment to apply other laws such as eliminating indoor asperity, using easy-to-clean materials, and securing the optimal working environment for cleaning.
 

 
3.2-2 eliminate the asperity or to choose with a little ingenuity the use location or the form of asperity
Basically the less asperity in the shape of the building or the surface of architectural materials, the easier cleaning will be. On the contrary, the more frequent asperity is, the more area for dirt to attach. Hence the more labor is needed for cleaning. Furthermore, the more complicated the asperity, the more difficult to remove dirt. On the other hand, asperity renders aesthetic quality of texture. Fortunately, I found out by looking at it from a cleaner’s perspective that some asperity is less likely to get dirty than other. Some asperity is less susceptible to contamination and some is easy to clean. Some can be used to secure the optimal working environment for cleaning. To sum up, we can make cleaning easy by considering the location and use of different types of asperity. Moreover, we can make cleaning easy by adapting other laws to where asperity is ubiquitous, which is possible only if we are aware that asperity generally requires more cleaning.

   
 
 

3.2-3 Use easy-to-clean architectural material
House dirt attaches to architectural materials. Some architectural materials are easier to clean than others. Therefore, it is of importance to consider not only design and functionality but also the ease of maintenance when you choose exterior and interior materials. Disposition, form, and use location of architectural materials will greatly affect cleaning. In terms of physical disposition, a flat and solid surface tends to keep off dirt and is easy to clean when it has got dirty, while a rough and lacunal surface attracts dirt and is hard to clean. In terms of chemical disposition, architectural materials with water/ detergent resistance are easy to clean, while materials without such disposition are hard to clean.
Residential facilities such as kitchen, bathroom, and toilet should be seen as aggregate of different architectural materials and easy-to-clean materials should be used. Choosing architectural materials with cleaning in mind is a very effective measure to make cleaning easy. As a conclusion, some architectural materials are easy to clean and we can make cleaning easy by using them.

   

 

3.2-4 Secure the optimal working environment for cleaning (design, architectural materials, etc.)
By securing the optimal working environment for cleaning, it is possible to reduce the amount of time and labor of cleaning. While you are still at the planning stage, picture yourself cleaning the house and take necessary measures to make it easy for yourself. If you consider at this point the working environment for not only residents but also professional cleaners, the long-term maintenance will be even easier. For example, the place to put cleaning apparatus, basic utilities for cleaning (the location of electric outlets and taps), and access holes (on floor, wall, ceiling, etc.) need to be considered to make the easy working environment for cleaning and maintenance.

   

The more “Ueki’s Laws” you apply when you plan building a new house or remodeling, the easier cleaning would be.

   

   

 

 
 
Vol.2 How to build an easy-to-clean house (Chapter 1 Create the environment that is less likely to get dirty・・・)

* “The Way to Make an Easy-to-clean House” can be found in Japanese on our website.
Note
“How to build an easy-to-clean house” that I am going to introduce here is the original draft of “Vision 2007” (with a partial modification) that was completed in 2007. Although the basic contents that I showed in vol. 1 are intact, three visions for “How to build an easy-to-clean house” from vol.2 have already been finished(?) by today (2009).
Those are only visions and not definite contents. This should be noted because my personal passion for making cleaning easy sometimes causes misunderstanding in readers. The vision is only a hypothesis based on the author’s experience and knowledge of cleaning, and a variety of text resources (because the easy-to-clean house has never been constructed so far). Therefore, it is readers who judge the validity of my argument.
Three visions for “Healthy house/ easy-to-clean house”

① 2007 vision for “Healthy house/ easy-to-clean house”
I conceived “Vision 2007” to make my own “Healthy house/ easy-to-clean house.” It is one example of packaging up-to-date (to 2007) construction technology and residential facilities into “healthy house/ easy-to-clean house” with actual construction of a house in mind. I will introduce this “Vision 2007” in this serial. Since this is the first version, some parts might be a little roughly structured.

*For those who want to know the contents as soon as possible
The serial “How to build an easy-to-clean house” that started in October 2008 in Nikkei Home Builder (five entries from October 2008 to March 2009) is a simplified version of Vision 2007, written so that professional readers who are active in home-building industry can introduce “easy-to-clean house.”
You can purchase back issues or articles (PDF) from Nikkei BP. I have a feeling that these are probably easier to understand than the original draft of “Vision 2007.”

② 2008 vision for “Healthy house/ easy-to-clean house”
More research from 2007 vision made me realize that there are cleaning problems that current technology and architectural materials cannot solve. To tackle this situation, I worked out “Vision 2008” (120 pages drafts and 25 new ideas +α) that contains various ideas for new products that reflect my wish; “if only we had this technology and that material or facility to make cleaning easy…”
Though I was flooded with new ideas as I was writing “Vision 2008”, I did not include all because I was not sure if they are realistic enough.

③ 2009 vision for “Healthy house/ easy-to-clean house”
In 2009, I finally made up my mind to build the first “healthy house/ easy-to-clean house.” And “Building an easy-to-clean house” was selected as an anniversary project for Nikkei Home Builder that will be ten years old in July 2009. Concurrently I produced “Vision 2009” for “healthy house/ easy-to-clean house” that contains the latest construction technology and residential facilities and also more new ideas. This will proceed as a cooperative project with Nikkei BP.

 

 

END

2.5 An example of cleaning practice by the equation and basic knowledge of cleaning

 

 
 

 

2.5 Decide the cleaning method using the equation and basic knowledge of cleaning
Here I take an example to show how you can apply basic knowledge of cleaning to practice. The story starts as follows. Oil spilled during cooking has built up on a kitchen sink top and has formed tough solid dirt over time. How can we deal with this?

1. Where? (knowledge of architectural materials)
Examine ①the type of architectural materials and their location, ②water resistance and detergent resistance, and ③surface configuration and hardness, and water absorbability and hygroscopicity of architectural materials.
2. What kind of dirt? (knowledge of dirt)
Examine ①source, ②type,③condition of attachment, and ④chronological change of dirt.
 

———————-Based on the result of the examination———————-

3. Do I use detergents? (knowledge of detergents) chemical force
①selection of detergents ②effective use of selected detergents
4. Do I use tools? (knowledge of tools) physical force
①selection of tools ②application of selected tools
5. Which cleaning method? (knowledge of technique) application of cleaning forces
①Decision of contents of work according to work categories”  basic procedure of cleaning
6. What about prevention? (knowledge of protectant)

 

 1. Where? (knowledge of architectural materials)
Steps to examine architectural materials
① the type of architectural materials and their location, ②water resistance and detergent resistance, and ③surface configuration and hardness, and water absorbability and hygroscopicity

Dirt is stuck to a stainless steel kitchen sink top. Stainless steel has water-resistance and resists rust. And it also has detergent-resistance, which makes this material relatively easy to clean. Its surface is solid and flat without asperity. It should be, however, noted that you could damage it with steel or other hard sharp objects since stainless steel is not very hard.
*If flat stainless steel is used for a top board situated below the eye level, be careful not to make a scratch when you “rub” or “scrape” it. Even minor scratch can be noticeable with light reflection. 

   

 

2. What kind of dirt? (knowledge of dirt)
Steps to examine dirt
①source ②type ③condition of attachment ④chronological change

Source of the dirt turned out to be oil and seasoning spilled during cooking. And it was also found that the substance is a little sticky and repels water. From these discoveries, we can judge that it is an oil-soluble substance with cooking oil being its major component. So as to condition of attachment, it is “fixed” to the architectural material. Considerable amount of time has passed since the initial attachment of dirt. With new dirt added over time, now it forms “bulky fixed dirt.”
 
   

We can easily clean this dirt by employing chemical force such as detergents to resolve it and physical force such as “rubbing away” and “scraping away.”

 
3. Do I use detergents? (knowledge of detergents)
①selection of detergents   ②effective use of selected detergents

Since oil-soluble dirt repels water, detergents can help the cleaning job. For home situations, you can choose from the market ones that are effective for kitchen greasy dirt. While they are usually mildly alkaline detergent, some products contain solvents as an additive.
If you know that “10 degrees rise of temperature doubles the rate of cleansing” *1, you might be able to come up with an idea to double the effect of detergents by putting it in a washbowl full of tepid water around 40℃(104°F) before you use it.

   
*1 refers to knowledge of detergents  Tips for wise use of detergents  Temperature

4. Do I use tools? (knowledge of tools)
As for cleaning apparatus
① selection of tools ②application of selected tools

Select necessary tools for the job such as a cloth, a bucket, and a tool to scrape off bulky fixed dirt.

 

   

 

5. Which cleaning method? (knowledge of technique)
As for cleaning job
①Decision of contents of work according to work categories  ②basic procedure of cleaning

Make technical decisions that suit each of multi-dimensional work categories and do not let them contradict with each other. Apply basic procedure of cleaning and decide how you are going to deal with dirt.

1.
Architectural materials
The architectural material in this case is stainless steel. Since the location is a top board, a scratch on it will be highly visible. If you “rub” or “scrape” tough dirt, you need to be careful not to make a scratch.
Dirt
The dirt is an oil-soluble substance that repels water, and the chronological change has transformed it into a solid “bulky fixed dirt.” Chemical force such as detergents would resolve dirt. Physical force such as “rubbing away” and “scraping away” would get rid of the bulky part and help the cleaning job.

   

 
2.
Use of detergents (chemical force)
To clean dirt that repels water, use mildly alkaline detergents. Some contain solvents as an additive. By leaving it for a while after putting a detergent, detergents components will have time to decompose dirt. By warming the detergent up to around 40℃(104°F), you can facilitate the process.

   

 
3.
Use of tools (physical force)
After dirt starts to dissolve in detergent, scrape away the bulky part of dirt with tools such as scrapers. Since tools made of hard materials can scratch stainless steel, it is better to use plastic spatulas or cards that bend.

   

 
4.
Knowledge of technique (chemical force + physical force)
Put a detergent again to decompose what remained after scraping away the bulky part, then “rub” softly with a sponge to remove it. Since stainless steel can be scratched easily, be careful with strong physical force such as coarse-textured sponge.

5.
Knowledge of technique (rinsing)
Wipe with a well-wringed wet cloth so that detergents will not remain on architectural materials. Then wipe with a dry clean cloth to erase marks left by a wet cloth, which will give it even more beautiful finish.

   

 
6.
What about prevention? (knowledge of protectant)
As a precaution, putting protectants will help the material stay clean and it is easier to clean when it finally gets dirty if you have put protectants on it. Since a kitchen is frequently exposed to water, anti-dirt coating with water resistance or water repellency will be effective.

   

 
 

 

Devising laws to make the cleaning easy

No matter how efficient you do cleaning by applying the basic knowledge of cleaning, cleaning is, in the end, a hard work. If you take into consideration the future cleaning work at the design stage when you build or remodel your house, however, house cleaning will be easier. In the following third chapter, I will introduce the laws of lesser and easier cleaning that I devised from my experience of cleaning in different situations and the basic knowledge of cleaning.

 

 

 

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2.4-4 Knowledge of protectants (prevention cleaning)

 

 
 

 
 
 
2.4-4 Knowledge of protectants (prevention cleaning)
By putting protectants after the cleaning, we can prevent to a certain degree the material from getting dirty again and can make it easy to clean contaminating substances when it does get dirty. Requirements for protectant are; it blocks dirt; it is easy to clean when contaminating substances get attached to it; and protective coat itself is easy to regenerate. There are various types of protectant materials and they have diverse functions. As many of them require special knowledge and technique for implementation, few household residents use them and, hence, protectants are not well-known for such reasons. Here I will introduce floor maintenance coats used by professional cleaners.

(1) Floor maintenance coat
Floor maintenance coats (wax) used for a floor are a common protectant. However, possibilities are that it adversely holds dirt or the deterioration of protective coat generates negative effect on appearance. Therefore, it is important to have sufficient knowledge of protectants as it was the case for detergents.
Floor maintenance coats create a series of thin films. These films produce the following effects:
① Prevent wear and damage
② Enhance appearance of the floor
③ Block dirt and make it easy to remove attached dirt
④ Facilitate floor cleaning

 
1) Classification of floor maintenance coats

Each year various new products come into the market. Some are to be dried after being put and some form indurate films when illuminated with ultraviolet rays. We can further classify floor polish as follows.

   

Majority of household floor maintenance coats used typically on wooden floors seem to be polymer resin wax.

 
2) Illustration of implementation of floor maintenance coats

e.g. Steps for waxing a wooden floor

   
*an example of waxing a wood floor by a cleaning specialist (*photo provided by Best Ltd)

 
e.g. Pictures of waxing on a wood floor

  
 
① Old wax looks slightly dark. Wax peels off by friction caused by walking and makes unevenness in color, which makes the whole floor look dirty.
② The left side of the blue line has been waxed after cleaned. The right side is untouched for comparison.
③ After waxing the entire floor
④ The upper side of the blue line has been waxed after cleaned.
⑤ After waxing the entire floor

 

 
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2.4-3. Knowledge of technique (application of cleaning force)

 
 
 

 
 
2.4-3 Knowledge of technique (application of cleaning force)
For efficient cleaning, knowledge of technique such as contents and procedure of cleaning is necessary to effectively utilize cleaning force (chemical force and physical force).
To determine a cleaning method, the first thing to do is to examine “What kind of dirt is on where?” The next is to select cleaning force such as detergents and tools. Then you can choose the optimal cleaning technique that can effectively utilize the selected force.

Imagine you are just about to clean the tough greasy kitchen dirt. I suppose you would put detergent on and start brushing. It would not be an easy business, would it? But if you leave the detergent for a while and give its components time to resolve dirt, it only needs small physical force to remove the dirt, which makes the cleaning more efficient. Moreover, if you do other works such as cleaning the living room or the bathroom while you are letting the detergent do its work, your time-use is even more efficient. It should be noted, however, that there is a risk of damaging the architectural material if you leave the detergent too long.
The example above shows how you can make the cleaning more efficient by applying proper technique to cleaning force that you chose. Furthermore, if you finish up by putting anti-dirt coating on the cleaned architectural material, it will reduce frequency and hardship of your cleaning.

★ Steps to decide cleaning technique
(1) “Decide contents of work according to work categories”  (2) Apply “basic procedure of cleaning” to (1) and design the overall process of implementation.

 
(1) Decide contents of work according to the work categories
Based on the result of the examination of “what kind of dirt is on where”, we decide contents of work that can effectively utilize cleaning force (chemical force and physical force) while taking into account the characteristics of work categories. Works can be categorized according to architectural materials, dirt, site, and location. For instance, if we decide cleaning technique according to the types of architectural material, we could say “cleaning technique for tiles.” If we decide cleaning technique according to the types of dirt, we could day “cleaning technique for greasy dirt.” To reiterate, if we categorize works according to factors such as architectural material, dirt, site, and location, we can think more clearly about cleaning technique. For your information, you can find the cleaning technique that suits your purpose by searching in the Internet with the search words “cleaning technique for —–.”.Many websites have information that would help you.

 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
※ e.g. The architectural material is stainless steel. Dirt is greasy dirt. The site is wall (high-place). The location is kitchen. Your cleaning technique should correspond to these criteria. You need to choose detergents and tools that are effective for the greasy dirt and would not damage the stainless steel that is easily scarred. Moreover, your cleaning technique should be usable for high-place work, and safety measure needs to be implemented.

   

 

(2) basic procedure of cleaning
By applying basic procedure of cleaning to ① and designing the overall workflow and methods of implementation, you can make your cleaning more efficient. The procedure I am going to introduce next is only a basic guide that is to be adjusted to each house’s actual condition.

1) procedure of implementation
If you think of a building as space, cleaning procedure will be shaped as follows. If the building is two storied, start from upper stairs. It is because dust and dirt falls down by gravity. In terms of the size of space, it is desirable to clean small space before large space. In terms of the direction of movement, you can prevent re-contamination by cleaning from the rear to the front entrance. From different reasons like these, there is a basic procedure to do the cleaning efficiently.

   

 
2) Procedure by sites
If you divide a house into parts, the basic of cleaning procedure is from top to bottom. As dust and dirt falls down, this rule is to prevent re-contamination after the cleaning. Cleaning proceeds from ceiling’s architectural material and electric appliances, then to wall’s architectural material and door and window sash, then finally to furniture and the floor.

   

 
3) Procedure by locations
If you segment a house by locations, you need to consider each location’s hygienic issue. This consideration makes a kitchen the first to be cleaned since it is the location where food is cooked. By doing kitchen first, we can also prevent bringing dirt from other locations into the place where hygiene is the most imposing issue. After the kitchen, the desirable order of work is the living room, the bathroom, the toilet, and the entrance.

   

 

 

 

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2.4-2 Knowledge of tools (physical force)

 
 
 

 
2.4-2 Knowledge of tools (physical force)
With cleaning tools (apparatus) we can utilize physical force such as “sweeping, wiping, dusting, vacuuming, polishing, scrubbing, scraping, rinsing” to get rid of dirt. The risk of damaging architectural materials with mal-application should be remembered here with physical force as well as with chemical force.

★Basic knowledge of tools
① To know the types of tools (apparatus)  ②To know how to use

 
   

 

(1) To know the types of tools (apparatus)
There is a variety of household cleaning tools and it is desirable to make a choice that fits your purpose and to use it in accordance with the instruction. The following is the description of some typical cleaning operations that would help you picture the actual cleaning process while you make a choice from numerous options of cleaning apparatus.

 
   
As an example of a wise use of cleaning tools, I have a column for those who live with pets and have a problem in daily cleaning. For details, see
http://www.osouji-best.com/PetToPet/benriDougu.php  (*Japanese website)

 
 
(2) To know how to use
To illustrate the point, I show you how you can get other effects than rinsing by adding pressure to water. If you put a sprinkler attachment on a hose and put pressure on water so that it fans out, you can “sweep” the floor like a broomstick. Moreover, by putting more pressure on water with high-pressure washer you can get effects of “scrubbing” and “scraping.” The smart combination of different tools like this generates numerous types of physical force to clean dirt.
In addition, those ordinary things that seem to be irrelevant to cleaning could turn into a great cleaning tool with smart application and combination.

 
   

 
  

 
 

 

 

 

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2.4 Decision on Cleaning Technique

The Equation of Cleaning: Decision on Cleaning Technique 

  
 
When you understand what kind of dirt is on where, the next step is to decide how to clean it. Chemical force (knowledge of detergents) and physical force (knowledge of tools) need to be effectively applied (knowledge of technique) to fight the dirt. In order to ease the maintenance afterwards, it is advisable to implement anti-dirt coating as prevention cleaning (knowledge of protectants) 

 Should I use detergents?  Should I use tools?  How should I utilize them?  What about prevention cleaning?
 
   

The process to decide on cleaning methods starts with the selection of “removal force” such as detergents and tools, then it moves on to decide how to apply it. Therefore, basic knowledge on removal force such as “knowledge of detergents” and “knowledge of tools” is prerequisite. You also need to have “knowledge of cleaning technique” such as contents and procedure of work. Furthermore, when you want to implement anti-dirt coating as prevention cleaning, “knowledge of protectants” is required. 

 

2.4-1 Knowledge on detergents (chemical force)

   

The most common chemical force involved in cleaning is detergents. Detergents are very often used in cleaning and it is fair to say that they are indispensable. If detergents alone can clear dirt without physical force such as “scrubbing away” and “scraping away”, it mitigates the risk of damaging architectural materials and eases the labor. Mal-application, on the other hand, could damage architectural materials and make them more susceptible to future contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to at least know the necessity and categories of detergents. In other words, to be able to judge whether you need to use detergents and what kind of detergents should be used is the minimal skill. Moreover, knowledge of detergents is required to use them efficiently. 

★ Basic knowledge of detergents
(1) to know categories of detergents  (2) to know how to use them efficiently

   

 
(1) Categories of detergents
One general tip for choosing household detergents is to pick one that suits your object, as there is a variety of products made for specific usage. Detergents can also be categorized by their pH (neutral detergent/ acid detergent/ alkaline detergent) and additive (solvent-containing cleanser/ abrasive detergents/ enzyme-containing cleanser). 

   

 *Generally detergents indicate synthetic detergents. Recently popular natural cleaning such as the use of baking soda and vinegar, on the other hand, makes use of non-detergent chemical force. 

 
Japanese Household Goods Quality Labeling Law requires household products such as detergents to display “product name”, “components”, “liquid property”, “uses”, “net content”, “normal amount to be used”, “handling precautions”, and “especial precaution statement”. For household synthetic detergents, it is obligatory to display the particulars listed below.

Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry
http://www.meti.go.jp/policy/consumer/seian/hinpyo/pdf_data/handbook_e.pdf

(4-1)Synthetic detergents
ⅰThis law binds these products that cleanse with surfactant other than pure soap content, excluding those that contain abrasives and those for cosmetic use.

ⅱ”Product name” displays one of the followings; “laundry synthetic detergent”, “Kitchen synthetic detergent”, and “other terms that properly indicate the use followed by the words ‘synthetic detergents'”.

ⅲ “Liquid property” displays one of the followings according to pH; “alkaline”, “mildly alkaline”, “neutral”, “mildly acidic”, and “acidic”.

ⅳ “Uses” displays proper terms that show its use (vegetable and fruit, dish)

ⅴ “Net content” follows Measurement Act. Unit is one of the followings; “kilogram”, “gram”, “liter”, and “milliliter”.

ⅵ “Normal amount to be used” displays the proper amount to be used in specific and clear terms (such as amount of laundry and amount of water)”.

ⅶ “Handling precautions” properly display required particulars according to the quality of the product.

ⅷ “especial precaution statement” should conform to the regulation that requires certain size and color of letters and frames and should be displayed on noticeable part of the container.

(2) Tips for wise use of detergents
The followings are 7 tips to use detergents wisely (including knowledge of tools and knowledge of cleaning technique)

1. Always read the instruction
It is always better to read and follow the instruction such as handling precautions and proper usage.

2. Concentration
Each detergent has optimal concentration for use, which is required to be displayed by Household Goods Quality Labeling Law. Though most detergents on the market can be used without dilution, it is important to dilute properly when you use industrial detergents or undiluted solution.

3. Temperature
Surfactant, the main component of detergents, dissolves in water more quickly with higher temperature. Generally speaking, surfactant dissolves nearly completely when temperature rises above 20℃(60°F) (Krafft point*1). It is said that 10 degrees rise of temperature doubles the rate of cleansing. Normally tepid water around 40℃(104°F) is recommended.
*1. Krafft point is the boundary temperature above which surfactant dissolves a lot quicker.

4.Use proper tools
To remove dirt smoothly, you should use tools that fit the location and material on which dirt is placed so that the effect of detergent goes around quickly. Properly chosen tools such as sponge and brush will help you clean in an “easy and quick” way.

5. Patch test*2
You should always test on an inconspicuous part before you actually use the tool and detergents. The purpose is to check the effectiveness of detergents, usefulness of tools, and the result on dirt. Another purpose is to see if you are not damaging the architectural material on which dirt is placed.
*2. Patch test: Patch test generally means the inspection of the causal substance of allergic reaction. Patch test here is closer to its crude sense; “to test in one section (of operating site)”. Hence, patch test in cleaning is a test on an inconspicuous part before you start the cleaning.

6. Caution! Do Not Mix!
Do not mix a detergent with another detergent. For instance, the mixture of acid detergents and chlorine bleach generates toxic gas (chlorine gas: cl2) that is extremely dangerous to human body. The mixture of acid detergents and alkaline detergents cancels each other’s effect and kills the cleansing power of detergents. Moreover, mixed detergents could damage architectural materials. In short, it is highly risky to mix different detergents.

7. Rinsing after the use of detergents
Carefully wash out or wipe with a wet cloth to finish the cleaning. Remaining detergent components attract dirt and can be a cause of an outbreak of mold and microbes. Moreover, if you leave some detergent on materials long enough, it might damage the material with chemical reactions. Therefore, the final rinsing is not to be forgotten.

 

★ An example of cleaning(Tips for wise use of detergents)

   

 

 

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2.3-2 Knowledge of dirt (what dirt?)

  

 

House dirt is foreign substances that attach to and contaminate floors, walls, pillars, ceilings, partitions, and furniture. To distinguish among many types of dirt, you need to examine why it got dirty (source), what kind of dirt it is (type), how it is attached (condition of attachment), and when it got dirty (chronological change).

★What dirt? Steps to analyze dirt
(1)Examine why it got dirty  (2) Examine what kind of dirt it is  (3) Examine how it is attached  (3) Examine when it got dirty and how it changed over time

   
 

 
(1) Why did it get dirty? Examine the source
The first thing to check when you want to know about dirt is the source of contamination. Ignorance leads to employment of wrong technique, resulting in Muda (waste of labor) and sometimes damage to architectural materials. Examining dirt enables us not only to guess the mechanism of contamination and chief component of dirt, but also to prevent the same kind of contamination from troubling us again.
They are ways for foreign substance to get attached to architectures; “natural source” and “man-made source.”

 1) Natural source
Even an uninhabited house gets dirty after a period of time. The sources are…
1. Particles floating in the air such as dust, pollen and carbon, get carried in by air current or enter through a small gap and get attached to architectural materials.
2. Substances mixed in rainwater get dried up and adhere.
3. Activities of animals such as excretion.
4. Outbreak of mold and hygiene pests.
5. Chemical substances in the air or acid rain cause chemical reactions.
6. Others

 
   

 
2) Man-made source
Different substances attach to houses as people use them. This source accounts for the contamination more than natural sources do. The sources are…
1. Mad and dust on shoe soles spread by walking.
2. Grime, secretions, excretions, fallen hair, etc.
3. Food and drink, fumes from cooking oils, smoke and ash of cigarette, etc.
4. Strips(?) produced by moving things
5. Dust and strips(?) from cloth
6. Others

   

 

 
(2) What kind of dirt? Examine types.
Though there are various types of dirt, general categories include water-soluble substances (dirt that blends with water), oil-soluble substances (dirt that repels water), and other contaminating substances, each of which requiring different types of detergents. In reality, however, dirt consists of multiple substances in a mixed form. A Practical solution is to discern the chief component from surrounding conditions, smell , touch, and investigate whether it blends with or repels water.

1) Basic investigation of dirt
1. Analyze attached dirt from the source of contamination and surrounding conditions.
2. See if it blends with or repels water.
3. Analyze from smell and touch.

 
   

※ Since dirt consists of multiple substances in a mixed form, the more you investigate, the more you will find. So-called house dust is mixture of different kind of dust generated inside a house except for those that enter from outside such as pollen and soil dust. As most types of house dust are tiny particles of fiber of cloth and papers, we call it “lint.” Other substances include dandruff, grime, debris of food, pets’ hair, mold, ticks, etc. Toxic matters in the air add to this diversity. Therefore, it is advisable to undertake a basic investigation to distinguish the chief component when you try to analyze the type of the dirt that you want to clean.

   

 

 
(3) How is it attached? Examine the condition of attachment
The same type of dirt may require different technique if its condition of attachment is different. Moreover, the types of dirt and the types of architectural materials make a difference in the condition of attachment. Some dirt is just sitting on the surface of the material while another permeates the material with water-absorbability. When you try to remove dirt, you need to know the condition of attachment and the mechanism that is functioning there as well as the type and nature of dirt. Not only the types of dirt but also the disposition of architectural materials and the chronological change after the attachment influence the condition of attachment.
As in the above, there are various conditions of attachment, ranging from a simple one to a complicated one, and mechanism working there is no less diverse. I will illustrate the typical conditions of attachment below.
 
  
 
Other phenomena such as getting rusty, getting dull, getting scarred, getting burned, coming off, getting discolored or faded are considered to be dirt or the condition of attachment of dirt.

 

 
(4) When did it get dirty? Examine chronological change
Some dirt transforms over time through processes such as oxidation and solidification. For instance, steel gets rusty (rust is oxidized steel) by oxidation. Tannin contained in coffee and green tea makes stain that becomes harder and harder to remove. Hence, it is important to deal with dirt as soon as possible. It is also notable that you need to adjust your cleaning method according to time elapsed.

1) Examples of dirt and chronological change

   

① Dirt such as dust builds up on old air conditioner’s filters and disable their filtering function. This type of dust contains more moisture and fat content than regular dust and is harder to remove because it has been solidified by air pressure over a long time. Physical force such as brushes used together with a vacuum is an optimal solution.

② Smoking over a long period of time browns the cover of an air conditioner all over. It looks dirtier than wallpaper around it because greasy dirt sticks to conditioner’s plastic materials and also because it is staticky.

③ Dirt on gas stoves. Liquid spilled during cooking has got solidified with time and now it is stuck really hard. It would have been much easier if you took action immediately after spilling happened.

④ Mold damages wallpaper. After the outbreak it proliferates and widens the range of contamination. If left untouched, mold could discolors and damages wallpaper and it is not good in terms of sanitary too

 

 

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2.3 Where? “Knowledge of architectural materials” / What kind? “Knowledge of dirt”

 
The Equation of Cleaning: The analysis of present condition to determine cleaning technique

 

   

Before we start cleaning, we need to first analyze what kind of dirt is attached to where. Then, we can decide on a technique based on the result of the analysis.
Analyze the location and the disposition of dirt. Since house dirt attaches to architectural materials, we need to understand where the dirt attaches to (knowledge of architectural materials) and what kind of dirt it is in order to arrive at the effective technique.

 
   

 

 

 2.3-1 Knowledge of architectural materials (Where?)

 
   

 Dirt in houses attaches to architectural materials such as floors, walls, and furniture. To remove the dirt, knowledge on materials such as their types, chemical dispositions, and physical dispositions is essential. Basic issues that need to be examined include “the type of architectural materials and their location”, “water resistance and detergent resistance”, “surface configuration and hardness”, and “water absorbability and hygroscopicity.”

★ Where? Steps for analyzing architectural materials
(1) Examine “the type of architectural materials and their location”  (2) Examine chemical disposition such as “water resistance and detergent resistance”  (3) Examine physical disposition such as “surface configuration and hardness” and “water absorbability and hygroscopicity.”

 

(1) Examine “the type of architectural materials and their location”
Recently, more diversity and complexity is seen in types of architectural materials, which makes it difficult to make a snap judgment. Therefore, we need to consider it as a prerequisite to check the type of architectural materials and their locations.
 
   

 With respect to the examination of the location, even if the same dirt is attached to the same materials, we have to employ different techniques according to where the material is used, i.e. floors, walls, and ceilings. Hence it is necessary to check the location as well.
★ For example…Some types of materials do not allow the use of certain detergents and tools. Hence, it is very important to know what kind of architectural materials the dirt is attached to. Where the materials are used is a no less important factor since it greatly influences the technical methods. Liquid detergents, which have no problem to be used on a floor, have to be replaced by frothy detergents if dirt is on a wall or a ceiling. Another reason why it is important to check where the materials are used is that when dirt is on a ceiling or on a higher part of a wall we need to prepare tools for high-place work and take care of safety measures.

 

(2) Examine “water resistance and detergent resistance”: chemical disposition
The vital point concerning the understanding of materials to which dirt is attached are chemical dispositions such as water resistance and detergent resistance. Water and detergent are indispensable in cleaning and, therefore, requires more familiarity on our side. It is crucial to check if the architectural materials absorb water (hydrophilia) or repel water (oleophilia). To know if the material is staticky, another chemical disposition is also important. Such understanding of chemical disposition leads us to the facts below.
 
   

Some detergents are not to be used for certain types of architectural materials. Lack of such knowledge may result in some serious damage. Hence it is important to know detergent resistance of architectural materials.
★ For example… detergents with strong acidity dissolve concrete and mortar through chemical reaction. Thinner sometimes dissolves plastic materials gradually over time after the use.

 

(3) “Surface configuration and hardness” and “water absorbability and hygroscopicity” : physical disposition
Physical disposition of architectural materials influences the way to clean up dirt. Even with the same detergent, you could damage architectural materials or end up only spreading dirt out if you are unaware of materials’ physical disposition. Materials with rough surface are hard to work with and soft materials are vulnerable to damage. Moreover, materials that absorb water hold up wet dirt inside and make it difficult to remove it. To put it short, cleaning technique should be in accordance with materials’ physical disposition.

1) Examine surface configuration and hardness
Flat and solid surface tends to keep off dirt and is easy to clean when it has got dirty. Rough and lacunal surface attracts dirt and is hard to clean.
 
   

A Close examination of architectural materials, particularly with a microscope, reveals the diversity of superficial configuration. Since “roughness” is surely not a sufficient indicator, we need to take into account the “frequency of asperity” and the “form of asperity”. For instance, even with the same frequency of asperity, one with sharper or more complicated projection and depression gets dirtier and is harder to clean.

In the following, I categorized basic architectural materials according to their “roughness.”

   
Not only superficial configuration but also hardness of architectural materials should be considered in determining the cleaning method. Soft materials and hard ones require different technique.

2) Examine water absorbability and hygroscopicity: physical disposition
Materials that absorb water or moisture are susceptible to penetration by dirt mixed in water and hard to clean. Hence, considerable attention should be paid when using water and detergents. A porous or spongy material draws in dirt dissolved in water by capillary action even though the material itself does not absorb water.
1Capillary action means liquid moves up (in some cases, down) inside a narrow tube-formed materials
2Porous or spongy architectural materials have gaps (pores) that catch fluid by capillary action and the power to catch fluid can be figured out from the number of pores. Majority of humidity control materials use this mechanism.

★The picture shows diatomite, one of materials used for walls. If you examine the surface with a microscope, you will see that the material is porous with a number of small bumps, meaning it absorbs moisture. Architectural materials with humidity conditioning effect often have these small bumps.
 
   

 

 

 

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2.2 Basic knowledge of cleaning and the equation (Ueki’s Equation)

 
Preface
Complete text of the draft of easy-to-clean house can be found in Japanese on our website.

 

2.2 Basic knowledge of cleaning and the equation (Ueki’s Equation)

 
   

 
I had to study numerous textbooks and documents for national certificates of cleaning, which indicates that cleaning/maintenance is required for more objects than you would think and the vast knowledge is required for that. Building-cleaning section alone has considerable volume. Nonetheless, I suppose most of the practitioners are not able to utilize this knowledge in the actual field. Though written texts and articles do have certain importance, a sheer quantity of them makes it difficult to remember. Moreover, we have to be highly flexible and creative in practice because of the diversity of the real life situations.
A Constant inflow of new architectural materials and technology necessitates innovative technique of cleaning. Written manuals are obviously limited and there is a widening gap between theory and practice. This situation has made me re-think about fundamental questions: “What is cleaning?” or “What is cleaning technique?”
By categorizing and simplifying written knowledge, I found an “equation.”
If the cleaning technique required for a certain condition is “x”, knowledge necessary to figure out “x” are “knowledge of architectural materials”, “knowledge of dirt”, “knowledge of detergent”, “knowledge of tools”, “knowledge of technique”, and “knowledge of protectant.”

 
   

To put this equation into practice, it is important to first comprehend “Where? What kind of dirt?” Then you can determine what technique to employ.

 ①Where? What kind?
Examine the location and the disposition of the dirt you want to clean. Since house dirt attaches to architectural materials, we need to understand where the dirt attaches to (knowledge of architectural materials) and what kind of dirt it is in order to employ the effective technique.

 ②Decide on technique!
Chemical force (knowledge of detergents) and physical force (knowledge of tools) need to be effectively applied (knowledge of technique) to fight the dirt. In order to ease the labor of maintenance afterwards, it is advisable to implement anti-dirt coating as prevention cleaning. (knowledge of protectants)

 
 Examine what dirt on where  Based on the result, decide on technique
To sum up, prerequisite basic knowledge of cleaning is “knowledge of architectural materials”, “knowledge of dirt”, “knowledge of detergent”, “knowledge of tools”, “knowledge of technique”, and “knowledge of protectant”. As a tool to effectively utilize the knowledge, I invented the equation of cleaning.

 

 
2.2.1 the Equation of Cleaning (Ueki’s Equation) to derive cleaning methods

★ in the field terms
cleaning technique “x” = (What dirt on where?) analysis  (choice and application of removal force) + prevention cleaning
★ in the theoretical terms
cleaning technique “x” = (knowledge of architectural materials/ knowledge of dirt) analysis  (knowledge of detergent/ knowledge of tools)*knowledge of technique+ knowledge of protectant

   

This equation is slightly different from mathematical ones, but fundamentally the same. Because it sounds fine , I named it “the equation of cleaning.”
A Specific situation of sites including used architectural materials, attached dirt, and surrounding environments sets precondition for cleaning to some extent. Clients may specify the budget and only allow some kinds of cleaning practice. At the site, we have to come up with effective techniques in diverse situations.
Categorizing and putting the information into the equation helps us avoid drowning in the sea of textbooks, documents, and experiences, and safely arrive at the most effective technique. It is important here to remember the way to utilize the knowledge by visualizing the figure above, rather than to think about individual know-how in each case.

 

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